Our research recognised 19 conditions associated with negative behaviours affecting lions kept in zoos, sanctuaries and safari parks globally, including excessive pacing, unnatural aggression, self-harm, refusal of food and withdrawn behaviour.

A wide range of issues that fall in the Behaviour Domain, such as unnatural aggression, can lead to fighting related injuries, like tailbone fractures and bite wounds, that can cause severe pain and infection if left untreated. Such conditions are part of the Health Domain.

Negative behaviours can be the cause of chronic stress and anxiety resulting from inadequate environmental conditions. For example, unnaturally small living conditions can lead to immense stress that presents itself as unnatural behaviour like excessive pacing or withdrawal.

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